Skip to main content

Version: 3.8.0

Create a Custom Plugin in Lua

One of the key features of APISIX is its extensibility through plugins. In addition to a wide range of existing plugins, APISIX also allows you to build custom plugins to add extra functionalities and manage API traffic with custom flow. Oftentimes, you use Lua programming language to implement new plugins. APISIX processes requests in phases and the relevant plugin logics get executed in each phase during the routing of requests.

This guide walks you through the example process of developing a new custom plugin in Lua for APISIX.

Prerequisite(s)

Develop File Proxy Plugin

In this section, you will create a new custom plugin called file-proxy for APISIX using Lua. This plugin will be used to expose the static files (YAML, JSON, JavaScript, CSS, or image files) through API and fetch a file from a specified URL. For example, API users can access openapi.yaml file at the specified URL http://127.0.0.1:9080/openapi.yaml.

Create a Lua File

Create a new Lua file for the plugin source code named file-proxy.lua.

Import Modules

Import the necessary modules for the file-proxy plugin:

local core = require("apisix.core")
local io = require("io")
local ngx = ngx

Define Plugin Name

Declare a unique name for the plugin:

local plugin_name = "file-proxy"

Define Plugin Schema

Create a schema for plugin parameters. The schema defines the available parameters as well as their data types, properties, default values, valid values, and so on.

The file-proxy plugin requires to have a file path parameter, such that APISIX knows where to read the file from before returning its content in the response.

local plugin_schema = {
type = "object",
properties = {
path = {
type = "string"
},
},
required = {"path"}
}

❶ The path of the file to be served.

❷ The path set be a required parameter.

Define Lua Module Table

Define properties version, priority, name, and schema for the plugin. The name and schema are the plugin's name and schema defined previously. The version and priority are used by APISIX to manage the plugin.

local _M = {
version = 1.0,
priority = 1000,
name = plugin_name,
schema = plugin_schema
}

version: The field typically refers to the version that is currently in use. If you publish and update your plugin logic, it is going to be 1.1 (You can set any version you wish).

priority: The field is used to sort plugins before executing each of their phases. Plugins with a higher priority are executed first. Make sure that you followed the order of plugins not to mess up the order of existing plugins. You can check the order of existing plugins in the config-default.yaml file.

name: The plugin's name.

schema: The plugin's schema.

Define Schema Check Function

Define a schema checker to validate the user-input parameters against the defined schema:

function _M.check_schema(conf)
local ok, err = core.schema.check(plugin_schema, conf)
if not ok then
return false, err
end
return true
end

Define Custom Logic

APISIX allows you to inject custom logic in various phases. See Lua NGINX Module Directives to learn more about different phases.

Implement custom logic for the file-proxy plugin in the access function, which would be executed during the access phase. The logic should open the file specified in the plugin configuration, read its content, and return the content as the response. If the file cannot be opened, it should log an error and return a 404 Not Found.

function _M.access(conf, ctx)
local fd = io.open(conf.path, "rb")
if fd then
local content = fd:read("*all")
fd:close()
ngx.header.content_length = #content
ngx.say(content)
ngx.exit(ngx.OK)
else
ngx.exit(ngx.HTTP_NOT_FOUND)
core.log.error("File is not found: ", conf.path, ", error info: ", err)
end
end

Define Logging Logic

The log function is executed during the log phase. Logging is optional but helpful for debugging and checking if the plugin is working properly.

Implement a logging logic to log the plugin configuration, request to the plugin, and response:

function _M.log(conf, ctx)
core.log.warn("conf: ", core.json.encode(conf))
core.log.warn("ctx: ", core.json.encode(ctx, true))
end

Put Everything Together

When you put together all the code above, file-proxy.lua should look like the following:

-- Introduce the necessary modules/libraries we need for this plugin 
local core = require("apisix.core")
local io = require("io")
local ngx = ngx

-- Declare the plugin's name
local plugin_name = "file-proxy"

-- Define the plugin schema format
local plugin_schema = {
type = "object",
properties = {
path = {
type = "string" -- The path of the file to be served
},
},
required = {"path"} -- The path is a required field
}

-- Define the plugin with its version, priority, name, and schema
local _M = {
version = 1.0,
priority = 1000,
name = plugin_name,
schema = plugin_schema
}

-- Function to check if the plugin configuration is correct
function _M.check_schema(conf)
-- Validate the configuration against the schema
local ok, err = core.schema.check(plugin_schema, conf)
-- If validation fails, return false and the error
if not ok then
return false, err
end
-- If validation succeeds, return true
return true
end

-- Function to be called during the access phase
function _M.access(conf, ctx)
-- Open the file specified in the configuration
local fd = io.open(conf.path, "rb")
-- If the file is opened successfully, read its content and return it as the response
if fd then
local content = fd:read("*all")
fd:close()
ngx.header.content_length = #content
ngx.say(content)
ngx.exit(ngx.OK)
else
-- If the file cannot be opened, log an error and return a 404 Not Found status
ngx.exit(ngx.HTTP_NOT_FOUND)
core.log.error("File is not found: ", conf.path, ", error info: ", err)
end
end


-- Function to be called during the log phase
function _M.log(conf, ctx)
-- Log the plugin configuration and the request context
core.log.warn("conf: ", core.json.encode(conf))
core.log.warn("ctx: ", core.json.encode(ctx, true))
end

-- Return the plugin so it can be used by APISIX
return _M

Source Custom Plugin

There are two approaches to load the custom plugin code into APISIX:

  1. Place the plugin source code in the default APISIX plugins directory /apisix/plugins along with the other APISIX plugins.
  2. Place the plugin source code in a separate directory and specify the search path in extra_lua_path in the config.yaml.

The following sections provide instructions for the second approach as it is recommended to manage custom code in a separate directory.

Create Custom Plugin File

APISIX looks for L7 plugins within /apisix/plugins and L4 plugins within /apisix/stream/plugins in your custom directory.

For our plugin, create a directory with a customized name and /apisix/plugins within the directory:

docker exec apisix-quickstart /bin/sh -c "mkdir -p custom-plugin/apisix/plugins"

Save the plugin file to the directory:

docker exec apisix-quickstart /bin/sh -c "echo '
local core = require(\"apisix.core\")
local io = require(\"io\")
local ngx = ngx

local plugin_name = \"file-proxy\"

local plugin_schema = {
type = \"object\",
properties = {
path = {
type = \"string\"
},
},
required = {\"path\"}
}

local _M = {
version = 1.0,
priority = 1000,
name = plugin_name,
schema = plugin_schema
}

function _M.check_schema(conf)
local ok, err = core.schema.check(plugin_schema, conf)
if not ok then
return false, err
end
return true
end

function _M.access(conf, ctx)
local fd = io.open(conf.path,\"rb\")
if fd then
local content = fd:read(\"*all\")
fd:close()
ngx.header.content_length = #content
ngx.say(content)
ngx.exit(ngx.OK)
else
ngx.exit(ngx.HTTP_NOT_FOUND)
core.log.error(\"File is not found: \", conf.path, \", error info: \", err)
end
end

function _M.log(conf, ctx)
core.log.warn(\"conf: \", core.json.encode(conf))
core.log.warn(\"ctx: \", core.json.encode(ctx, true))
end

return _M
' > /usr/local/apisix/custom-plugin/apisix/plugins/file-proxy.lua"

Update APISIX Configuration File

Update APISIX configuration file with the search path to the custom plugin in extra_lua_path and add the plugin name to the plugin list:

docker exec apisix-quickstart /bin/sh -c "echo '
apisix:
extra_lua_path: "/usr/local/apisix/custom-plugin/\?.lua"
enable_control: true
control:
ip: 0.0.0.0
port: 9092
deployment:
role: traditional
role_traditional:
config_provider: etcd
admin:
admin_key_required: false
allow_admin:
- 0.0.0.0/0
plugin_attr:
prometheus:
export_addr:
ip: 0.0.0.0
port: 9091
plugins:
- file-proxy
' > /usr/local/apisix/conf/config.yaml"

extra_lua_path: Search path for the custom plugin.

caution

Note that adding only file-proxy plugin to the plugin list will override all existing default plugins specified in config-default.yaml. To make the file-proxy plugin an addition of the existing plugins, you should copy over the names of the existing plugins and add them to the list.

Reload APISIX

Reload APISIX for configuration changes to take effect:

docker exec apisix-quickstart apisix reload

Test Custom Plugin

Store Test File

Store a static openapi.yaml file in the APISIX instance:

docker exec apisix-quickstart /bin/sh -c "echo '
openapi: 3.0.1
info:
title: OpenAPI Spec
description: OpenAPI Spec file description.
' > /usr/local/apisix/openapi.yaml"

Create a Route

To use the file-proxy custom plugin you need to create a route in APISIX that uses the plugin:

curl "http://127.0.0.1:9180/apisix/admin/routes" -X PUT -d '
{
"id":"openapi-file-proxy",
"uri":"/openapi.yaml",
"plugins":{
"file-proxy":{
"path":"/usr/local/apisix/openapi.yaml"
}
}
}'

Validate the Plugin

Send a request to the route:

curl "http://127.0.0.1:9080/openapi.yaml"

The response should be the content of the file openapi.yaml:

openapi: 3.0.1
info:
title: OpenAPI Spec
description: OpenAPI Spec file description.

Next Steps

Developing custom plugins for APISIX with Lua is a powerful way to extend the functionalities of the API gateway. You can also develop plugins in other programming languages such as Java, Go, and Python, with the support of plugin runners (coming soon).


API7.ai Logo

API Management for Modern Architectures with Edge, API Gateway, Kubernetes, and Service Mesh.

Product

API7 Cloud

SOC2 Type IRed Herring

Copyright © APISEVEN Ltd. 2019 – 2024. Apache, Apache APISIX, APISIX, and associated open source project names are trademarks of the

Apache Software Foundation